人员作业疲劳与安全事故

        随着人-机系统作业方式的技术和信息的密集化,机器设备的可靠性和安全性提高的同时系统安全指数更多地依赖于人的安全行为管理,要求操作人员保持警觉性作业。根据国际上的权威机构的事故统计数据,由人因失误造成的安全事故比例重大,其中作业疲劳作为人的基础不良状态极易诱发人的行为和决策失误,最终可能诱发安全事故。
        笔者撷取了国内外部分资料中人因事故统计数据,同时引用原文并注明其来源,与诸位读者分享。

● 美国国家公路交通安全管理局(The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, NHSTA)保守估计:每年有10万起交通事故是由驾驶员疲劳引起的,造成1500人死亡,71000人受伤,125亿美元的经济损失。
 
1. Review of fatigue management technologies for enhanced military vehicle safety and performance (2013).
2. NHTSA. Traffic Safety Facts: Drowsy Driving. U.S. Department of Transportation: National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 449, 2011. http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pubs/811449.pdf (accessed 08/14/13).

原文“In civilian driving, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHSTA) conservatively estimates that 100,000 police-reported crashes are the direct result of driver fatigue each year, yielding an estimated 1,500 deaths, 71,000 injuries, and $12.5 billion in monetary losses.”
 
数据来源机构:National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 美国国家公路交通安全管理局
链接地址:http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pubs/811449.pdf
 
● 根据美国国家睡眠基金会2004年的民意调查结果显示, 60%的成年司机(约1.68亿)美国人承认自己曾疲劳驾驶,其中37%(1.08亿)美国人曾在方向盘上睡着。
 
3. Review of fatigue management technologies for enhanced military vehicle safety and performance (2013).
4. National Sleep Foundation. Facts and Stats. 2005. http://drowsydriving.org/about/facts-and-stats/ (accessed 08/14/13).  
 
原文“According to the National Sleep Foundation’s 2005 Sleep in America poll, 60% of adult drivers – about 168 million people – say they have driven a vehicle while feeling drowsy in the past year, and more than one-third, (37% or 103 million people), have actually fallen asleep at the wheel! In fact, of those who have nodded off, 13% say they have done so at least once a month. Four percent – approximately eleven million drivers – admit they have had an accident or near accident because they dozed off or were too tired to drive.”
 
数据来源机构:The National Sleep Foundation's 2005 Sleep in America poll,美国国家睡眠基金会
                        美国国家睡眠基金会2005年的民意调查,(去年)2004年的疲劳驾驶调查数据
链接地址:http://drowsydriving.org/about/facts-and-stats/
 
● 90%的核设施紧急情况、65%的航空事故、90%的汽车事故、80%的海上事故和66%的海上起重机事故是由人因引起的。
 
5. Preventing and reducing ship board operator fatigue .
 
原文“23.2.1  Human Error Statistics
● Human error has been attributed to:
1)90% of nuclear facility emergencies.
2)65% of all airline accidents
3)90% of all auto accidents
● Approximately 80 percent of all marine casualties are caused by human error.”
 
文献来源:HUMAN FACTORS IN SHIP DESIGN,
                The Society of Naval Architects & Marine Engineers(SNAME),海军建筑师和船舶工程师协会
链接地址:legacy.sname.org/committees/tech_ops/O38/hfsd.doc
 
● 75-96%的海事伤亡事故是由人因失误造成的
 
1)84-88%油轮事故是由于人因失误引起。
Transportation Safety Board of Canada. (1994) Working Paper on Tankers Involved in Shipping Accidents 1975-1992. 
2)79%拖轮搁浅事故是由于人因失误引起。
Cormier P.J. (1994) Towing Vessel Safety: Analysis of Congressional and Coast Guard Investigative Response to Operator Involvement in Casualties Where a Presumption of Negligence Exists. Masters Thesis, University of Rhode Island. 
3)89-96%的碰撞事件是由于人因失误引起。
Bryant D.T. (1991) The Human Element in Shipping Casualties. Report prepared for the Dept. of Transport, Marine Directorate, United Kingdom. 
U.K. P&I Club (1992). The United Kingdom Mutual Steam Ship Assurance Association (Bermuda) Limited. Analysis of Major Claims.  
4)75%的船舶碰撞是由于人因失误引起。
5)75%的火灾和爆炸事故是由于人因失误引起。
 
文献来源:Human Error and Marine Safety.
链接地址:http://bowles-langley.com/wp-content/files_mf/humanerrorandmarinesafety26.pdf
 
● 根据英国资讯委员会办公室(The Information Commissioner's Office ,ICO)发布的由Ergress软件系统记录的数据显示:只有7%的网络信息安全事件是由于技术故障,93%的事件归咎于人因失误。

数据来源机构: The Information Commissioner's Office(ICO),英国资讯委员会办公室
链接地址:http://www.natlawreview.com/article/human-error-caused-93-data-breaches
 

● 由美国核管理委员会(The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission,USNRC)进行的一项官方事件报告(Licensee Event Reports,LER)研究表明, 65%的核电系统故障一定程度上涉及人因失误。
 

6. Ryan TG (1988) A task analysis-linked approach for integrating the human factor in reliability assessments of nuclear power plants. Reliab Eng Syst Saf 22:219–234
7. Trager TA (1985) Case study report on loss of safety system function events, Report No. AEOD/C504, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 1985
 
 

 

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